The Project

 The Reverse Global Warming Project focuses on the development of Refrigerant-Based power generation technologies that will beat climate change. It is not only about reducing the carbon footprint. Nor only green and energy efficient power generation. Its main objective is to develop power generation methods that will absorb excessive heat and cool down the planet.

The Reverse Global Warming Project focuses on the development of Refrigerant-Based power generation. This is a patent pending technology GB1806577.1 that will not only reduce CO2 emissions. It will cool down the planet and provide cheap energy sources to the industry and the public.

Refrigerant-Based power generation – Efficient Power Generation

Its main element is the method of energy production based on the refrigerant. It uses the thermodynamics of the natural hydrological cycle in such a way that it will acts as a great cooling system for our planet. In Refrigerant-Based power generation the refrigerant absorbs heat just like an air conditioning system. But it does it the way that the heat is not wasted but converted into electricity in a similar way as in a hydroelectric power plant.

Engineers will use this method in various industries to generate electricity from waste heat. And to improve the efficiency of existing power generators.

Temperatures and applications

The Refrigerant-Based power generation system can be adapted to different temperature ranges. Different refrigerants can absorb heat discharged from steam turbines, cooling towers or ventilation of mining infrastructure. Refrigerant-Based power generation can use low temperature heat that is currently being wasted by the industry. This method has the advantages of various energy production methods. It is both environmentally friendly and emission-free, as well as unrelenting to changes in weather or time of day. And as reliable as the methods based on flammable fuels.

This will reduce the carbon dioxide emissions of power plants. More efficient energy production means less fuel used per produced power unit. The possibility of converting waste heat into electricity will allow the industry to cover part of its own demand. And reduce the demand for electricity from the grid. Electricity production by plants will be a way to reduce production costs and an additional source of income. Also means a competitive market and lower prices for all energy users, both large companies and the public.

Will Reverse Global Warming

But the main advantage of this technology is that it can absorb excess heat from the atmosphere. Cooling the atmosphere will help to fix the climate of our planet. This is the first project that aims to provide global climate control. This will not happen in the case of the construction and commissioning of the first power plant. The widespread use of this technology will reduce the consumption of fossil fuels. And provide cheap energy, produced directly from the excess heat stored in oceans, rocks and the atmosphere. This method will help to facilitate both industrial development and environmental protection.

Who can make it?

A key challenge is to find a company that will be able to handle such a project. Team of engineers specializing in refrigeration as well as electricity production must design this system. This can prove difficult, because most companies on the market, specialize in one or the other. On the other hand, a great prize awaits the winners. This idea has enormous potential. The reduction of the carbon footprint and the positive impact on the climate can convince society. And saving energy will convince potential investors, so it’s certainly worth a go!

So, how does it work?

The way the Refrigerant-Based power generation system works is simple. It consists of three key elements: evaporator, condenser and turbine with generator. The height of the entire installation is also important. The refrigerant absorbs heat in the low-level evaporator. Under the influence of heat, liquid refrigerant evaporates and rapidly increases in volume. Because the gas is very light, the refrigerant vapours overcome gravity and rise to a high altitude. At the top of the installation there is a condenser. After reaching it, the refrigerant is cooled down and condenses back into the liquid. As the cooled liquid becomes heavy again, it flows downwards under the influence of gravity.

Just like water that evaporated from the ocean to create clouds at a high altitude. And after cooling, turn into rain and fall back to the surface. The refrigerant flowing from a high altitude falls on the turbine, turning it and generating electricity. This element of the system works like a power generator in an ordinary power plant. After passing through the turbine, the refrigerant flows into the evaporator where the whole cycle is repeated.

Reverse global warming with Refrigerant-Based power generation
Refrigerant-Based Power Generation cycle diagram

 

Temperature and pressure?

The temperatures and pressures are very important here. There is a direct correlation between the boiling point and the pressure of the refrigerants. By changing the pressure, we change the boiling point at the same time. And it is unique for every refrigerant. So, for example, the refrigerant R134a used in domestic air conditioning boils at -26 degrees C in atmospheric pressure, while when compressed to 10 bar it boils at 43 degrees C. The refrigerant absorbs heat during boiling. By changing its pressure, we can regulate the boiling point. By choosing the right boiling point, we can adapt the entire process to any conditions in both industry and climate. So if we want to extract heat from warm waste water in the factory, we can use R134a at high pressure. And if we want to take heat from water in the river, we can use R134a at lower pressure.

Some natural refrigerants have a very low boiling point. Ethane boils at -88 degrees C. Which means that it can still absorb heat, even if the ambient temperature is as low as -88 degrees C. So we can even use this method to retrieve the power in the polar regions. Others, like Pentane, boil at high temperatures and can be used in industry, mining or classic power plants. Designers will be able to adjust the Refrigerant-Based power generation to many temperatures and climate zones.

Reverse global warming by turning ambient heat into power
Refrigerant-Based Power Generation Pressure Enthalpy

 

Why is elevation so important?

The height of the entire structure is important for two reasons. The natural temperature change with the altitude, and the performance of the turbine. The temperature of our atmosphere changes with altitude. The higher, the cooler. This change is called the Lapse Rate and is 6.5 to 10°C per kilometre, depending on the humidity. It has a constant value regardless of the time of day and weather. If the air temperature at the ground increases, the temperature a kilometre higher will also increase by the same value.

The Refrigerant-based power generation operates using the temperature difference between the evaporator and the condenser. The greater the temperature difference, the greater the pressure difference between them. This in turn means more power with which refrigerant vapours will be transferred, increasing mass flow and efficiency.

R134a example

Let’s put Refrigerant-Based power generation into action and cool the water in the glacier bay with R134a. Liquid R134a boils and evaporates in temperatures above -26°C. And when it evaporates it absorbs loads of heat. So if we put the evaporator in the bay at the foot of a 0°C glacier the refrigerant will reach a pressure of 1.9 bar. This is the pressure at which R134a will freeze the glacier back again. The refrigerant will freeze water by absorbing its heat and evaporating. If we now place a condenser one thousand meters higher, placing it on a tower built on a hill. The temperature around the condenser will be around -9°C. And hence the pressure of R134a inside the condenser only 1,07 bar. The pressure difference between the evaporator and the condenser is 0.8 bar. This pressure will will push the refrigerant vapours uphill, making it overcome the gravity.

From the point of view of thermodynamics, it is the same mechanism that creates clouds in the atmosphere. Here, however, there are no non-condensable gases so it will work more efficiently. But more on non-condensables below.

Efficiency of the turbine?

The second important reason is the pressure of the liquid refrigerant and the efficiency of the turbine. The liquid refrigerant will flow through the turbine just like water in a hydroelectric plant. Such power plants built on rivers often accumulate water using a dam to get the best possible performance. The higher the dam, the greater the water pressure on the turbine and the greater the energy.

Most of the dams in the world have a height less than one hundred meters. The largest, Jinping-I Dam in China has a height of three hundred and five meters. This is not much compared to the height of the tower that can be built today. Especially if it is built on top of a high mountain.

Similarly, it is also in mining. Tunnels drilled two thousand meters below the surface, and lower, are cooled by refrigeration systems. If we were to use a liquid refrigerant instead, creating a column of liquid over a turbine, two thousand meters high, we would obtain pressure and energy unattainable for any hydroelectric power plant. Where even a small flow through the turbine would generate large amounts of electricity.

Cooling by turbine?

Yes, it’s very simple. The liquid or gas flowing through the turbine gives it its energy. As a result, its temperature and pressure decrease. This phenomenon appears in both steam and hydroelectric turbines. Engineers can easily calculate the temperature drop of the liquid refrigerant on turbine.Just reverse the equation used to calculate the temperature rise for the pumps. This is a very basic equation, and not always accurate but it gives good indication of what happens to the fluid and what causes its changes.

The reduced temperature at the turbine outlet means that the refrigerant will exit the turbine sub-cooled. This in turn means that it will have to absorb as much energy as it gave up on the turbine before it reaches the saturation state and starts to boil again. And this is also where the cooling is. Refrigerant-Based power generation can extract the heat and cool the refrigerant to below the ambient.

So the refrigerant will use heat to do the work twice. The first time by expanding and generating a mass flow against gravity. This is when it flows from the low-stacked evaporator to the condenser located above. When the refrigerant moves from higher to lower saturation pressure. And the second time, by giving energy on the turbine and reaching a sub-cooled state.

What’s gas auto compression?

This term comes from mining, where cooled air is used to ventilate tunnels. In mines, cold air is pumped down the shafts and gets compressed by the weight of the air column above it. The deeper the depth, the heavier the air column and the more the air on the bottom gets compressed. The gas temperature is related to its pressure. So as the pressure increases, the air warms up and vice versa.

In mines, this is an undesirable phenomenon, because it makes it difficult to cool down deeply placed tunnels. Here, however, the operation of this mechanism will be very beneficial. The evaporated refrigerant will turn into gas in the low-level evaporator. Which means that it will turn into an auto-compressed gas. As it moves upwards towards the condenser, its pressure will gradually decrease and thus the temperature will drop. This means that the refrigerant will use part of the absorbed heat to overcome gravity. This is exactly the same phenomenon that accompanies the creation of clouds from the evaporating water.

Supercritical?

A similar phenomenon will not occur on the other side. The condensed refrigerant will gradually flow into the pipe supplying the turbine. As it moves down, it’s pressure will also increase. However, because liquids are not as compressible as gases, they do not change the temperature under pressure so much. The temperature of liquid refrigerant will raise, but only a little. Instead, another phenomenon will appear. It will easily turn to supercritical liquid. In thermodynamics, we often talk about liquids, gases and boiling points in which refrigerants change their state by absorbing or giving back heat.

The supercritical state is a condition where the refrigerant has both gas and liquid properties. In the supercritical state, the refrigerant does not pass through the boiling point while expanding. And hence does not use latent heat to change the state. The use of supercritical fluids for energy production is very efficient and cost-effective. However, obtaining a supercritical fluid is not easy. It often requires very high pressures and temperatures. For water, for example, this is a pressure of the order of 220 Bar at 374°C. Such a pressure is not only difficult to obtain, but can be dangerous. Many refrigerants have a relatively low critical pressure and can reach a supercritical state at pressures below 50 bars.

Example

To compress a refrigerant like R134A to a supercritical state, approximately 40 bar is enough. R134A obtains this pressure at the bottom of the 350m high column of liquid. Nowadays, built skyscrapers are higher. They have refrigerant compressors in the basement and cooling towers on the roofs. If, therefore, condense the refrigerant on the roof and drop it from 350m to the turbine, you could generate electricity quite effectively. Using at the same time the temperature drop of the liquid on the turbine, accompanying the pressure drop. In this way, we can cool the refrigerant without need to use water nor the cooling towers. It is therefore a simple way introduce the Refrigerant-Based power generation and replace the system of air conditioning that uses up electrical energy for one that produces it, in skyscrapers.

Turbines connected in series to minimise calculated loss?

Even more efficiently, such a system would operate in mines. Many of them reach depths exceeding two thousand meters. It would be possible to place the turbines in a cascade every several hundred meters. Turbines will be connected in series, so the outlet of one turbine is coupled to the inlet to the next one. In this way, the pressure at the turbine output above will automatically be transferred to the turbine below. Turbine above will transfer any unused energy on the turbine below. And only the last turbine at the bottom of the cascade would have lower efficiency. Speaking of lower, I mean the performance of an ordinary turbine losing some of its energy on the outlet. This would allow to obtain a very large differential pressure across all turbines, and greatly increase the efficiency of the entire system.

What’s refrigeration effect?

The refrigeration effect is a heat that refrigerant absorbs from the refrigerated space to produce useful cooling. The greater the refrigeration effect the better cooling. This definition might sound simple but it’s not as easy to make as it is to say. The absorbed heat must be somehow removed so that the refrigerant circulating in the loop can work. In refrigeration, it gets compressed to very high pressure. The gas then warms up to a high temperature, which allows it to be cooled at ambient temperature. The cooled gas turns into liquid under the influence of cooling. If we remove the pressure, the liquid medium will cool down. Refrigerant turns into gas again, when it evaporates it absorbs the lost heat.

What’s are non-condensables?

The “non-condensables” is a common name for a gases that can’t be turned to a liquid in given conditions. In refrigeration, it is called gases that are in the system accidentally or as a result of leaks. Such gases reduce the refrigeration effect because they circulate in the system without changing their physical state. They do not absorb and do not give up the heat as efficiently as needed.

If you look at our planet and its natural cooling system, which is the climate and the hydrological cycle. It is easy to see that its atmosphere consists mainly of non-condensable gases. Water vapour, which performs work by transferring large amounts of water over long distances is only a small percentage of the volume of the atmosphere. Its content in the atmosphere is on average around 1% at sea level, and 0.4% over the entire atmosphere. So the atmosphere, although it distributes huge masses of water and air, really works very inefficiently. If, therefore, we build a system that performs work, based solely on the refrigerant, the natural cooling of the planet would be greatly improved.

Good refrigerants are bad refrigerants?

There are many factors that determine whether a refrigerant is good or not. In addition to physical properties such as, boiling point, latent heat of vaporisation or specific heat, there are many safety-related properties that determine the suitability of a given refrigerant in a given application. Some refrigerants are flammable, toxic or explosive. Many have been withdrawn from use due to environmental protection. The use of others is limited to industrial applications where only properly trained people have contact with them. The most important thing here is that a refrigerant that is good for cooling does not have to be good for power generation.

We need to study entire catalogue of available substances to find the best refrigerant for Refrigerant-Based power generation.

Refrigerant-Based power generation capabilities

In order to estimate the possibilities of my method of energy production, I have carried out several calculations. These are very basic calculations of the most popular refrigerants selected for several potential applications. I mainly wanted to check the profitability of using my method in the field of skyscrapers, factories, power plants, mines and the natural environment. All this in different geographic zones and different temperature ranges.

Turning waste heat into power
Refrigerant-Based Power Generation draft calculations
Spreadsheet explained.

I chose six popular refrigerants and checked the potential of each in four system sizes. These sizes may correspond to different applications. I tried to choose the flow size, cooling power and size of the entire structure so that it best suited the potential applications. To a large extent, however, I was guided by the feeling.

The first column indicates potential applications. From the smallest system to the largest, for each refrigerant.

The second shows the type of refrigerant and operating temperature. I have chosen the temperatures with great approximation to show the possibilities of various applications from the hottest to the coldest, I wanted to cover all climate zones and main supply temperatures existing in the environment, industry, power generation and mining.

Boiling temperature

Shows the temperature at which the refrigerant boils at atmospheric pressure. At this temperature it turns into vapour and absorbs large amounts of heat. The boiling point can be adjusted by changing the pressure.

Density

It shows how much a cubic meter of the refrigerant weights in both gas and liquid state. For comparison, water weighs 1000 kg and water vapour 0.59 kg per cubic meter.

Latent Heat of Vaporization

Shows how much heat has to absorb liquid to turn into vapour.

Specific Heat

It shows how much heat one kg of the refrigerant need to be absorb or release to change its temperature by 1°C

Head

That’s the height of the entire system. It determines how high the vapour must rise and the height of the liquid column over the turbine. I’ve chosen four example heights for different system sizes.

  • 300m for high-rise buildings and medium-sized factories.
  • 600m for large factories, power plants and for the production of energy directly from the atmosphere.
  • 1000 m for power plants, mines and for the production of energy directly from the atmosphere.
  • 2000 m for mines and for energy production directly from the atmosphere.

This is just my suggestion of where system of a given size could be used.

Flow Rate

This is also just a suggestion of how much refrigerant can circulate in a system of a given size. We can easily change it, its only about maintaining certain basic proportions to start with.

Pressure Head

Shows the pressure at the bottom of the refrigerant column of a given height. These are also turbine inlet pressure.

Pressure head equation
Turbine inlet pressure equation
Vapour Δk @ h

This is very important information, showing the usefulness of a given refrigerant to cool the atmosphere. It shows the decrease in refrigerant temperature with the decrease of the vapour pressure at a given altitude. For comparison, the temperature of the atmosphere drops 9.8 °C per 1000 m altitude change in dry air and 5°C in humid one.

Example.

The temperature of R717 drops 1.8°C per 1000 m. The temperature of the atmosphere itself drops by 9.8°C. We place the evaporator in temperature of 10°C at sea level. As in Great Britain for most of the year 🙂 Liquid ammonia absorbs heat and evaporates. Its vapours are moving upward in a pipe to a height of a thousand meters. At this altitude, the air temperature is only 0.2°C while the refrigerant is 8.2°C. The refrigerant is warmer than the surrounding atmosphere by 8°C . It is therefore cooled to 0.2°C and condensed back into liquid form. Ammonia absorbs the heat at sea level and gives it away at a height of 1000m.

Ammonia will deliver the heat to high altitude, but also will consume part of it to lift its mass to this altitude. This is due to the temperature difference. Refrigerant comes back to a condenser as liquid of temperature 0.2°C. While the air temperature around the evaporator is 10°C. The temperature difference at low level is 9.8°C while at high level 8°C. So the temperature difference is 2°C greater on the bottom than on the top. With constant refrigerant circulation, more heat will be absorbed on the bottom than radiated back on the top. The absorbed energy will drive the flow.

Conclusion

This means that we only need the heat to rise liquid refrigerant to a great height. And we only need the heat of the atmosphere and the temperature difference to perform the work.

Turbine Efficiency

Defines how effectively the turbine converts the energy stored in the liquid into mechanical work. Its always a value between 0 and 1. It depends on the quality of the turbine and also on the pressure difference at the inlet and outlet of the turbine. When I created the spreadsheet, I used the values typical for turbines used on rivers, but I think that in fact the turbines in my installation will work much more efficiently. First of all because they will work at much higher pressure differences. And secondly, they will carry refrigerants close to the boiling point. And also in the supercritical state. So, those that are much more expandable and these turn pressure into work much better.

Acceleration of Gravity

It is simply the value of Earth’s gravity.

Turbine Sub-Cool

Liquid flowing through the turbine gives it some of its energy and, as a result, its temperature decreases. Turbine sub-cool shows how much the temperature of the liquid refrigerant will drop. How much lower it will be than the condensation temperature. And also how much it will have to increase its temperature before it reaches the boiling point again. So this is where the magic happens and the refrigerant gets cooler than the ambient.

Liquid temperature drop on turbine discharge
Temperature drop on turbine

 

Turbine Cooling Power

Shows what will be the cooling power of a turbine with a certain efficiency, working in a system of a given height, and with a given flow rate of a specific refrigerant.

Sub-cool of refrigerant on turbine discharge
Cooling power of turbine

 

Evaporation Cooling Power

It shows what will be the cooling power of a refrigerant in a system with a specific flow rate.

Cooling power of vaporizing refrigerant
Refrigerant cooling power

 

Turbine Electrical Power

Shows what will be the electrical power of a turbine working in a specific circumstances.

Electric power generated by turbine
Turbine electric power

 

Grid Power Savings

Shows what will be the total electrical power, that users will not need to pull from the power grid. So this is the electric power, generated by the turbine, and COP corrected cooling power, generated by the system.

It tells the energy users how much electrical energy they could realistic save on theirs cooling systems. Also, it tells the power stations owners, how much extra power they could generate on the same fuel used, if they introduced this system to trap the waste heat from cooling towers, fumes and boiler house ventilation.

Reduced demand for grid power
Grid power savings

 

Coefficient of Performance or COP

This is a very important parameter determining the efficiency of refrigeration systems. It shows the amount of energy supplied to the amount of energy shifted. This factor tells how much electrical power we need, to generate given cooling power by refrigeration system. It might be anywhere between 2 and 6 with typical value of 3.5. This means that for every watt of energy supplied to refrigeration system we might shift 3.5 watt of heat between the source and the sink. Based on my own experience I’ve used 3.2 for my calculations cause i think this is more realistic value.

CO2 Reductions

Shows what will be the potential tonnage of CO2 savings. This amount of CO2 will not be polluted into the atmosphere when the system is used. The CO2 reductions comms directly from power savings. I have used the average of 0.35156 kg CO2e for 1 kWh of power saved based on data from:

https://www.rensmart.com/Calculators/KWH-to-CO2

and 870g/kWh for Coal, 487g/kWh for Gas Turbine and 650g/kWh for Oil, based on data from:

http://gridwatch.co.uk/co2-emissions

Reduced carbon dioxide emission related to power savings
Reduction of CO2 emission

 

The first column shows the average CO2 savings in tons per hour, the second in thousands tons per year. In the next three columns I have included CO2 savings in tons per hour. This is in case we replace other fuels with a new system. All of this depending on system size and refrigerant used.

Financial Gains

Shows what will be the potential monetary savings of new system. First two columns show financial value of kilowatt-hour savings in GBP per hour for both wholesale prices users and consumers. Next four columns shows predicted three and ten years payback in wholesale and end user prices. I have used data from:

http://www.utilityhelpline.co.uk/market-reports/wholesale-energy-prices-update-120118

£48.7 per MWh or £0.0487/kWh for wholesale prices and

https://www.ukpower.co.uk/home_energy/tariffs-per-unit-kwh

14.37p/kWh or £0.1437kWh for consumer price.

 Energy suppliers can also treat this as additional profits generated without fuel used.

Cooling Towers L8 and Water Savings

The last type of savings is not in the spreadsheet, but it should be mentioned. These are savings in water usage and increased microbiological safety. The cooling towers evaporate water to increase cooling. They might use, depending on size, from few tons to thousands tons of water a day.

Cooling tower rejects about 15,000 BTU/hour (4400 W). We can define this equivalent ton as the heat rejection in cooling 3 US gallons/minute (1,500 pound/hour) or around 154,7 m3/MWh

Warm water stored in cooling tower pond is also a great habitat to many bacteria. Some to these are very harmful to humans. Legionella Pneumophila is the greatest threat. It can survive in water droplets released by cooling tower and can kill in days. This is why government bodies are supervising cooling towers and these are subject to regulations called in “L8” in Great Britain. Introduction of Refrigerant-Based power generation will not only reduce water usage, but also increase microbiological safety of the area.